Erector Spinae plane (ESP) block
A high-frequency linear ultrasound transducer will be placed in a longitudinal parasagittal orientation 3 cm lateral to the T5 spinous process. The trapezius, rhomboid major, and erector spinae muscles will then be identified superficial to the tip of the T5 transverse process. The patient’s skin will be anesthetized with 2% lidocaine. A 17-gauge 8-cm needle will be inserted using an in-plane superior-to-inferior approach to place the tip into the fascial plane on the deep (anterior) aspect of erector spinae muscle. The location of the needle tip will be confirmed by visible fluid spread lifting erector spinae muscle off the bony shadow of the transverse process. A total of 30 mL of 0.5% ropivacaine with 5mcg/mL of epinephrine will be injected in 5-mL aliquots through the needle (maximum of 3mg/kg), followed by insertion of a 19-gauge catheter under direct vision 5 cm beyond the needle tip. The catheter will then be secured in place.